The editorial board publishes exclusively original materials, articles that have neither been published before nor submitted for publication in other journals.

For all submitted materials, the level of uniqueness of the author's text is determined by the appropriate software: Manuscripts in which plagiarism or text borrowing were found without references to the original source are rejected by the editorial board.

The forms of plagiarism include:

- the use (verbatim quote) of any materials in any amount without reference to the source,

- the use of borrowed images, drawings, photographs, tables, charts, diagrams or any other forms of graphical representation of information without reference to the source,

- the use of materials without written permission if the authors or the rightholders thereof prohibit the use of their materials without special agreement.

The forms of incorrect borrowing include:

- lack of graphical selection (in quotation marks) of literally quoted text in the presence of references to the source,

- incorrect reference to the source or incomplete composition of its bibliographic description which impedes their identification,

- the link is not referred to the first source of borrowed text without explicit reference to this fact (error in determining the source),

- the absence of links from the text to the sources given in the attachment list,

- excessive citation (in the presence of references to the source and graphical selection of the cited text), the volume of which is not justified by the genre and purpose of the article.

In case of incorrect borrowings, all such cases will be considered on an individual basis.

Plagiarism Before Publication

The editorial board of the Journal analyzes every case of plagiarism in substance. If plagiarism, or text borrowing, is detected by editors or reviewers at any stage prior to the publication of the manuscript, the authors will be warned of the need to change the text or make a reference to the original. If at least 25% of an article is borrowed, the article may be rejected.

Plagiarism Validation Policy

Manuscripts in which plagiarism was detected are processed on the basis of the amount of plagiarism available in the manuscript: if the borrowed text makes up 25% of the article, the manuscript is sent to the authors for revision. If it is more than 25%, the manuscript is rejected without an editorial review. In this case the authors will be encouraged to review text borrowings and provide a new manuscript.

The percentage of plagiarism is calculated by the software, and is also estimated by the editorial board.

Plagiarism After Publication

In case of revealing the proven fact of plagiarism in an article that has already been published, its author (authors) is deprived of the right to be published in all subsequent issues of the journal, and the text itself is removed from the archive of the official website of the publication and from other places of public placement, the responsibility for which rests upon the Journal.

Recommendations for Avoiding Plagiarism

- Use quotes for words taken literally from the source.

- Do not change parts of the quotation in the context of the sentence.

- Use single characters to quote in the quotation.

- Use three dots (space and three dots) for a part of the omitted quotation.

- Use brackets for added own words.

- Limit the use of direct quotes.

The authors are responsible for obtaining a copyright license to reproduce illustrations, tables, drawings taken from works of other authors and/or sources. The permission must be placed below each item.


Each manuscript is protected by copyright after its publication. Most editors and reviewers argue that auto-plagiarism is unethical.