Comorbidities in Patients before Surgical Myocardial Revascularization: Current State of the Problem. Part I
Every year we see an increase in the number of patients with indications for surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. In addition to the difficulties of the cardiac surgery process, no less important is the therapeutic support of patients, which in addition to cardiac subtleties requires guidance in concomitant nosologies. As the age of patients increases, there is a higher comorbidity which is associated with difficult management of patients, extensive prescription of drugs and higher cost of medical care.
The aim. To analyze the current literature data on comorbidity in patients hospitalized for coronary artery bypass grafting.
Results. According to the literature data, there is a high Charlson comorbidity index, in average 5.7 ± 1.7, in the baseline status of patients with coronary artery disease. High comorbidity index is known for its negative effect on the functioning of grafts in the long-term period after surgical myocardial revascularization. Among patients who underwent surgical revascularization of the myocardium, 22.8–46.9% had diabetes mellitus, 37.5% had obesity, 1.1% had rheumatoid arthritis and 10–12% suffered from chronic kidney disease. There is no statistical data on preoperative status of gastrointestinal tract, but the main complications and predictors of death were identified. Due to the increase in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases on the background of the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in the number patients with connective tissue diseases in cardiac surgery is predicted, and perioperative management of such patients has its own characteristics and requires further in-depth study.
Conclusions. Searching for comorbidity in cardiac surgery patients with coronary artery disease is an important component of their preoperative preparation and risk stratification. The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, autoimmune diseases, chronic kidney disease on the occurrence of postoperative complications and the result of surgical myocardial revascularization has been proven. SARS-CoV-2 infection in the surgical treatment of coronary artery disease is another challenge of today that requires further observation and research to help address prognosis, complications, and mortality.
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