The Questions of Tactics of Surgical Treatment of Primary Heart Tumors
Introduction. In the structure of cardiac neoplasms, myxoma accounts for 80–90% of benign heart tumors. The frequency of diagnosis of primary heart tumors (PHT), of which more than 80% are morphologically benign tumors, ranges from 0.09% to 1.9% of the total number of hospitalized patients.
The aim of the study is to identify important issues of diagnosis and tactics of the surgical treatment of primary heart tumors.
Material and methods. At the In Amosov Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine for the period from January 1, 1969 to January 1, 2019, 962 patients operated due to primary cardiac tumors. The myxomas of heart (MH) founded in 856 (89.0%) patients, of which in 752 (87.8%) cases – MH of left atrium (LA). The right atrial myxomas (RA) were diagnosed in 77 (9.0%) cases, MH in the left (LV) and in the right (RV) ventricles each in 8 (0.9%) cases, respectively. Multicentric tumor growth with the damage of two or three chambers of the heart was found in 11 (1.3%) patients. The age of patients with MH was from 3 to 78 years old (the middle age 47.5 ± 3.4), of which 621 (72.6%) were between 31 and 60 years old. Non-myxomic benign tumors were observed in 37 (3.9%) cases, malignant tumors – in 67 (7.0%) cases.
Results and discussion. The III and IV functional classes according to the NYHA classification included 311 (36.3%) and 73 (8.5%) patients, respectively, which in these groups often required urgent surgical treatment. Hospital mortality over the past 19 years was 0% in the surgical treatment of MH, namely, 493 operations performed without lethal outcomes.
Conclusions. The accepted tactics of emergency diagnosis and surgical intervention ensures the effectiveness of treatment with MH, as evidenced by the data of long-term results: 574 (78.3%) patients assigned to the NYHA functional class I, and 108 (14.8%) patients to NYHA functional class II. Survival rate up to 20 years was 79.8%.
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